viral hepatitis

Viral Hepatitis Information from the CDC

Viral hepatitis information
World Hepatitis Day is July 28

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Viral Hepatitis posts valuable  viral hepatitis information. Following is its post commemorating World Hepatitis Day. Visit the CDC’s viral hepatitis webpage for more viral hepatitis information.

 

Know Hepatitis. Act Now. For World Hepatitis Day, learn more about the different types of viral hepatitis that impact millions worldwide, and what you can do.

Viral hepatitis – a group of infectious diseases known as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E- affects almost 400 million people worldwide, causing both acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) liver disease and killing  more than 1.4 million people every year. In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh leading cause of death worldwide, compared with the tenth in 1990, and caused more deaths than AIDS, tuberculosis, and even road injuries. World Hepatitis Day is July 28th and is an opportunity to highlight the global burden of this disease, CDC’s efforts to combat viral hepatitis around the world, and what actions individuals can take.

What is CDC doing to help combat hepatitis globally?

The vision of CDC is to eliminate viral hepatitis in the United States and worldwide. CDC’s recently released five-year strategic plan[PDF – 17 pages] is organized around four key elements, one of which is “Act globally to prevent, detect, and control viral hepatitis.”

CDC has been re-designated as a Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Viral Hepatitis. These WHO Collaborating Centers work to implement WHO’s Global Hepatitis Strategy priority activities, serving as a reference laboratory, and providing technical assistance for the development of viral hepatitis guidelines and policies.

CDC also assists countries experiencing a high burden of viral hepatitis. In recent years, these countries have included China, Egypt, Georgia, India, Pakistan, and Vietnam. Our international work is helping to reduce the disease burden for travelers and people migrating to the United States, while identifying best practices that may serve as models for other countries, including the United States.

What are the different types of hepatitis viruses occurring around the world?

The five hepatitis viruses – A, B, C, D and E – are distinct; they can have different modes of transmission, affect different populations, and result in different health outcomes. While hepatitis B and hepatitis C cause the greatest global burden of disease, hepatitis A, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are also global health concerns.

  • Hepatitis A is primarily spread when someone who has never been infected with hepatitis A and is not vaccinated, ingests food or water that is contaminated with the feces of an infected person or has direct contact with someone who is infected. Hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease and is rarely fatal, but it can cause serious symptoms. Hepatitis A can be prevented through improved sanitation, food safety, and vaccination.
  • Hepatitis B is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids of an infected person, including at birth from a mother to her baby and through sexual contact. The hepatitis B virus can cause both acute and chronic infection, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, chronic illness. People who are chronically infected can develop liver cirrhosis or even liver cancer. Hepatitis B is most common in sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia, where between 5–10% of the adult population is chronically infected. Rates of chronic hepatitis B are also high in the Amazon region of South America, the southern parts of eastern and central Europe, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. Many people with chronic hepatitis B were infected at birth or during early childhood. Getting the hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective way to prevent hepatitis B virus infection. WHO recommends that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth. In many parts of the world, widespread infant vaccination programs have led to dramatic declines of new hepatitis B cases.
  • Hepatitis C is spread through contact with blood of an infected person. Hepatitis C is common in many countries in the world; in much of Asia and Africa, most infections are caused by unsafe medical injections and other medical procedures. Hepatitis C related to injecting drug use occurs throughout the world; an estimated 67% of people who inject drugs having been infected with the hepatitis C virus. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C is also possible. Hepatitis C, like hepatitis B, can also cause both acute and chronic infections, but most people who get infected develop a chronic infection. A significant number of those who are chronically infected will develop liver cirrhosis or liver cancer. Antiviral medicines can cure approximately 90% of people with hepatitis C, thereby reducing the risk of death from liver cancer and cirrhosis, but access to diagnosis and treatment is low. There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C but research in this area is ongoing.
  • Hepatitis D is passed through contact with infected blood. It only occurs in people who are already infected with the hepatitis B virus. People who are not already infected with hepatitis B can prevent hepatitis D by getting vaccinated against hepatitis B.
  • Hepatitis E is spread mainly through contaminated drinking water. Hepatitis E usually clears in 4-6 weeks so there is no specific treatment. However, pregnant women infected with hepatitis E are at considerable risk of mortality from this infection.  Hepatitis E is found worldwide, but the number of infections is highest in East and South Asia. Improved sanitation and food safety can help prevent new cases of hepatitis E. A vaccine to prevent hepatitis E has been developed and is licensed in China, but is not yet available elsewhere.

Do you need to be vaccinated and/or tested for hepatitis?

CDC and DVH are continuing to lay the foundation for the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat, both domestically and abroad. Hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C are the most common types of viral hepatitis in the United States. To see if you need to be tested and/or vaccinated for hepatitis A, B, or C, take CDC’s online Hepatitis Risk Assessment, which is based on U.S. recommendations.

More Information

Unsafe Injections transmit Infections!

Unsafe Injections transmit infections
World Hepatitis Day is July 28

As we commemorate World Hepatitis Day, we remember that unsafe infections transmit infections. We are grateful to the World Health Organization for its efforts in preventing viral hepatitis globally. Many cases of viral hepatitis are transmitted by unsafe injections. Following is a poster to guide healthcare providers in administering safe injections.

 

 

Unsafe injections transmit infections
Guidance from the World Health Organization for safe injections

Make Smart Injection Choices

 

Smart Injection Choices
World Hepatitis Day is July 28

The World Health Organization reminds us that we need to make smart injection choices. Following are the questions that the WHO suggests we ask our healthcare provider before we receive an injection to help us make smart injection choices. Unsafe injections spread diseases such as viral hepatitis. When we communicate with our healthcare providers we make good decisions and healthcare improves.

Make smart injection choices
Make smart injection choices

Viral Hepatitis Immunization for Children

Viral hepatitis immunization

Today we share information about immunizations for children, especially viral hepatitis immunization. We are grateful to Carrington College for developing the infographic about immunizations for children.

 

 

A deadly infection of the liver, hepatitis can eventually lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and other dangerous conditions. Viral hepatitis Immunization is available for some types of hepatitis, but not for all.

Hepatitis A

Typically spread by close personal contact, hepatitis A does not result in chronic infection. However, its symptoms can be quite severe, so early vaccination is important. As laid out below in the child immunization guide created by Carrington College, children between 12 and 23 months old receive multiple doses of the vaccine, with doses separated by at least 6 months.

Hepatitis B

The symptoms for hepatitis B are virtually identical to those associated with hepatitis A. Unfortunately, hepatitis B can also lead to chronic suffering. According to the recommended childhood vaccination schedule, the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine is typically administered within 24 hours of a child’s birth. Further doses will be giver over the next 18 months.

Hepatitis C

There is currently no vaccine available for hepatitis C, although researchers are working hard to change that – possibly in conjunction with an HIV/AIDS vaccine. Full prevention is not possible without a vaccine, but experts at WebMD advise that those worried about contracting the disease avoid direct exposure to blood, practice safe sex, and not share needles with others.

Prevention is important for all types of diseases, especially for infections like hepatitis that can cause years of discomfort. Children and young adults can secure adequate protection through immunization. While injection safety is a concern as hepatitis shots can spread bloodborne diseases, the recent adoption of smart syringes (with features that prevent re-use) promises to reduce the risk of vaccine-related infection.

viral hepatitis immunization

 

Think NoHep this World Hepatitis Day

World-Hepatitis-Day-2014

Today is World Hepatitis Day and this year’s theme is “Elimination.” The World Health Organization (WHO) recently adopted the first ever Elimination Strategy for Viral Hepatitis that calls for “rigorous application of universal precautions for all invasive medical interventions and promotion of injection safety measures…”

World Hepatitis Day is a great way to raise awareness about injection safety. Here are six ways you and your organization can get involved!

1. Read and share Dr. John Ward’s blog, “Think NoHep this World Hepatitis Day.”

2. Check out CDC.gov’s World Hepatitis Day Feature.

3. Connect with the One & Only Campaign and the World Hepatitis Alliance on Facebook and Twitter using the official hashtags #NOhep and #WorldHepDay.

4. Join the #NOHep Thunderclap to amplify the message on social media.

5. Pledge your support for the World Hepatitis Day campaign by sharing your organizations logo on the World Hepatitis Day webpage.

 

HONOReform applauds the ongoing work of the Viral Hepatitis Implementation Group

Viral Hepatitis Implementation Group met recently in Washington, DC
Viral Hepatitis Implementation Group met recently in Washington, DC

Kudos to our colleagues, including leadership of National Viral Hepatitis Roundtable (NVHR), for dedicated work on advancing the Viral Hepatitis Action Plan. An update from the recent meeting is included below.

On Tuesday, 10/14/14, the cross-government working group supporting and monitoring the implementation of the updated Viral Hepatitis Action Plan—the Viral Hepatitis Implementation Group or “VHIG”—met in Washington, DC to share updates on 2014 accomplishments and plans for the coming year. Some of the highlights included:
• Promising preliminary data from HRSA’s Bureau of Primary Health Care showing a significant increase in the number of hepatitis C tests conducted in health centers across the U.S. in 2013 and similar promising increases in HCV testing numbers from the Indian Health Service (IHS). Read more

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